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Biofuels are a potential environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels this where there strengths lies. The two most remarkable first generation biofuels are bioethanol and biodiesel. Other 1st generation biofuels comprises butanol, alcohol and biogas. The 2nd generation of biofuels make use of innovative technology like gasification and liquefaction technique to change biomass into biofuel. Bio-fuels are a potentially more environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels and this is naturally where their strengths lie. The latest focus on so called third generation biofuels focuses on algae. Bioethanol is an alcohol-based fuel made through the fermentation of crops such as barley, wheat, corn or sugar cane. It is the most commonly used biofuel worldwide. Fossil fuel is made by natural process, formed from dead organisms. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Other mostly used derivatives include kerosene and propane. During the process of combustion, pollutants such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are emitted and enter the atmosphere. These contaminants are called greenhouse gases.
Refining is a process of converting crude oil into usable products. Crude oil is a mixture of hundreds of different types of hydrocarbons with carbon chains of different lengths. These can be separated through refining. The refining technics as follows: Physical separation through crude distillation, Conversion or upgrading of the basic distillation streams, Product treatment to purify and remove contaminants and pollutants, Product blending to create products that comply with market specifications. Cracking: Cracking processes break down heavier hydrocarbon molecules (high boiling point oils) into lighter products such as petrol and diesel, using heat (thermal) or catalysts (catalytic). Enhancing Oil Recovery With Bottom Water Drainage Completion. Field tests with DWS well completions have shown that DWS can control water coning and increase oil production rate.
Subsurface information can be known without digging or drilling by Geophysical investigation techniques. GIS(Geographical information systems) for recording, modelling, analyzing and presenting geographically referred data are computer-based systems. GIS data accommodate location-related data such as roads, elevations, boreholes, etc. and associated property data. Surveying geotechnical design variables on land scrutinizing and monitoring areas subject to rock slides, investigating oil and gas reservoir (link to rock physics), modelling rock slide paths, surveying risks in transport and data management. Remote imaging, conducted by terrestrial, airborne or satellite-based platforms have the ability to accurately image the Earth's surface with high resolution. This can be used for settlement and deformation monitoring, surveying rock slides and making engineering geology evaluations.
Now a days, Exploration & Production (E&P) companies are looking to maximize production while ensuring safe operations and avoiding environmental impact. By leveraging the power of digital intelligence, upstream oil and gas facilities can ensure safe production with higher up time, reducing actual risks and proving regulations are met. For all upstream operations, it is crucial to access, analyze and present data to satisfy productivity and safety requirements. This starts with streamlining data collection, validation, surveillance and notification processes from field systems and engineering applications. The major E&P are improved by using Honeywell's Digital Suites for Oil and Gas.
Natural gas processing, terminals, pipelines and other forms of petroleum product transport are part of the midstream oil & gas sector.Processing these midstream operations safely, efficiently and reliably has proven to be an ongoing challenge. The current industry challenges have changed the gas processor’s focus to the improvement of existing asset reliability and efficiencies that drive capacity and throughput. Transportation is a big part of midstream activities and can include using pipelines, trucking fleets, tanker ships, and rail cars. The midstream gathering and processing sector is relatively free of commercial regulation, the movement of gas by interstate pipelines and subsequent state level distribution activities are highly regulated in the US by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).
Intelligent Robots designed with AI capabilities for hydrocarbon exploration and production, to improve productivity and cost-effectiveness while reducing worker risk. Virtual assistants – Online chat platform that helps customers navigate product databases and processes general inquiries using natural language. ExxonMobil announced that it is working with MIT to design AI robots for ocean exploration. Artificial Intelligence can be used in optimizing the drilling process and enhancing operational efficiency, leading to a reduction in drilling costs. Generally, geoscientists locate oil reserves using their knowledge and experience with a helping hand from sophisticated technology. AI systems have the ability to automate and optimize data-rich processes. They have the potential to mitigate risks, enhance productivity, remove redundancy and minimize operational costs.
The Digital Transformation Initiative that serves as the focal point at the Forum for new opportunities and themes arising from latest developments in the digitization of business and society. Digitalization's impact on Oil and Gas was considered across the value chain, from exploration and production to midstream, downstream (refinery) and retail. A new era for the Oil and Gas companies began to digital technologies, with a focus on better understanding a reservoir's resource and production potential, improving health and safety, and boosting marginal operational efficiencies at oil fields around the world. Digital asset life cycle management, Circular collaborative ecosystem, Beyond the barrel, Energizing new energies.
Alternative fuels generally have lower vehicle emissions that contribute to smog, air pollution and global warming. Most alternative fuels don’t come from finite fossil-fuel resources and are sustainable. Alternative fuels can help nations become more energy independent. Alternate fuels, energy conservation and management, energy efficiency and environmental protection have become important in recent years. The increasing import bill has necessitated the search for liquid fuels as an alternative to diesel, which is being used in large quantities in transport, agriculture, industrial, commercial and domestic sectors. Biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils has been considered a promising option. Electricity can be used as a transportation alternative fuel for battery-powered electric and fuel-cell vehicles. Hydrogen can be mixed with natural gas to create an alternative fuel for vehicles that use certain types of internal combustion engines. There are other alternate fuels like
NDT(Non Destructive Testing) methods are utilized in the oil and gas industry, to address issues regarding safety, equipment reliability, and environmental protection and government regulations. The Conventional Techniques like Visual inspection is an inexpensive method for detecting equipment flaws and defect. Ultrasonic testing utilizes sound waves uses the photoelectric effect of the ultrasonic transducer makes it possible to transmit and receive from within the equipment. Radiographic methods utilize X-ray or gamma rays (electromagnetic radiation) to examine the internal structure and integrity of the equipment. Thermographic inspection measures the difference between the temperature of a pipeline and the surrounding environment. Acoustic emissions detects the presence of rarefaction waves produced by leaks in pipelines. The advanced NDT methods as follows: Novel Radioisotope Inspection, Ultrasonic phased array (PA),Time of flight diffraction (ToFD), Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) ,Automatic ultrasonic testing (AUT).
The Oil and Gas industry holds a major potential of hazards for the environment, and may impact on large areas of the sea, the seabed and on land. They affect the environment through emissions to air, noise from seismic surveys and their physical footprint on the seabed. Commercial fish species are sensitive to sound and, at close range, larval fish might even be killed by seismic sources. Water contamination due to discharges of water effluents rich in inorganic salts without appropriate treatment (saline pollution). Thermal pollution due to discharge of effluents with temperatures higher than recipient water bodies. Water contamination due to oil spills. Particulate emissions into the atmosphere generated during operations at production and refining plants. Noise pollution caused by equipment and operations that generate loud noise. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides, ammonia, acid mist and fluorine compounds gas emissions from production and refining plants operations. Accidents that impact the environment, such as large oil spills, leaks, fires and explosions on plants. Eventual deaths.
The nature of the oil and gas business is that risk/reward is part of the fundamentals, and risks are relatively straightforward, relating to uncertainties around extraction, distribution, volatile commodity prices and the perplexing political landscape - not to mention the myriad factors that can impact operating costs and liquidity. Oil and Gas executives cited regulatory change and scrutiny as the top risk that their organization faces. Reining in Exploration and Production: As prices have continued to plummet, numerous upstream oil and gas companies have put the brakes on additional exploration and production activities. Oil and gas companies tend to prefer countries with stable political systems and a history of granting and enforcing long-term leases.Beyond the geological risk, the price of oil and gas is the primary factor in deciding whether a reserve is economically feasible. Basically, the higher the geological barriers to easy extraction, the more price risk a given project faces. Supply and demand shocks are a very real risk for oil and gas companies.
A whole range of different structures is used offshore, depending on size and water depth. In the last few years, we have seen pure sea bottom installations with multiphase piping to shore, and no offshore topside structure at all. Shallow water complex, which is characterized by several independent platforms with different parts of the process and utilities linked with gangway bridges. Gravity base consists of enormous concrete fixed structures placed on the bottom, typically with oil storage cells in a "skirt" that rests on the sea bottom. An FPSO(Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) is typically a tanker type hull or barge, often converted from an existing crude oil tanker (VLCC or ULCC). Due to the increasing sea depth for new fields, they dominate new offshore field development at more than 100 meters water depth. The tendons are constructed as hollow high tensile strength steel pipes that carry the spare buoyancy of the structure and ensure limited vertical motion. Semi-submersible platforms, SPAR,Sub sea production system.
Advanced Material technologies vary tremendously in their disruptive potential and prospects for adoption, mounting challenges in oil and gas production could create opportunities for even the riskiest technologies. To assess the opportunities for advanced materials to enhance oil and gas operations. Composite materials boast superior strength-to-weight ratios that facilitate exploration and production of oil and gas reservoirs, especially offshore. Injectable additives, such as wellbore and reservoir agents, enhance hydrocarbon mobility and improve oil recovery operations. Outer protections such as cladding and barrier coatings applied to metals, with research into nanotechnology and self-repairing synthetics heavily driving innovation in corrosion resistance. Synthetic protocols for nanoparticles used in oil and gas industry. Application of nanoparticles in enhancing hydrocarbon exploration and production.
The oil and gas industry has unique workï¬‚ow, working conditions, and other operational and environmental factors that demand an online inventory management solution which can effectively monitor the offshore operations, provide safe work place for site personnel and track the movement of assets for distribution across the supply chain. Through remote monitoring of tote operations, this approach ensures safety of the site personnel by minimizing the need to be available at offshore environment for extended periods to record and perform manual inventory. Online inventory monitoring/management system for tote inventory is built using RFID (Radio Frequency Identiï¬cation) and WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). RFID and WSN have undergone vast development in their own areas, the integration of these two versatile technologies open door to industrial automation.
The area in which automation is expected to increase is in the monitoring of onshore and offshore pipelines. With increased cases of criminals attempting to steal oil, terrorist attacks and environmental damage, the frequency of monitoring is set to increase, according to the DNV LG report. By using of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUVs) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) able to discover leakages, attacks and vulnerabilities. Diagnostics and Inspections: Underwater drones and unmanned submersibles can help monitor when equipment needs repairs, and can also aid in the inspection process. Pressure and Flow, Weather Monitoring Systems can done by using Automation. IOT is proving to be a game-changer for automation companies as a variety of industries begin employing IOT-enabled architectures and experimenting with how IOT solutions can reap new benefits.